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Can I block just bad robots? ( Onvertaald gelaten)

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In theory yes, in practice, no. If the bad robot obeys /robots.txt, and you know the name it scans for in the User-Agent field. then you can create a section in your /robotst.txt to exclude it specifically. But almost all bad robots ignore /robots.txt, making that pointless.

If the bad robot operates from a single IP address, you can block its access to your web server through server configuration or with a network firewall.

If copies of the robot operate at lots of different IP addresses, such as hijacked PCs that are part of a large Botnet, then it becomes more difficult. The best option then is to use advanced firewall rules configuration that automatically block access to IP addresses that make many connections; but that can hit good robots as well your bad robots.